Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov was a Soviet historian, ethnologist, anthropologist and translator from Persian. He had a reputation for his highly non-orthodox theories of ethnogenesis . Москва: Наука. The Hsiung-nu in China (); Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth (); Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe (). This chapter discusses Gumilev’s theory of ethnogenesis. Generally speaking, ethnogenesis proceeded in the following manner. At certain historical moments. Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth has 98 ratings and 9 reviews.
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By comparison with the Goths and Alans the forefathers of the Slavonic tribes of the Middle Danube seemed an insignificant sprinkling.
Each caste had the right to a certain type of occupation, and those on whom military service was settled were few. Invariably, this process involved movement and geographical dislocation for the biosphefe involved. Marx expressed himself clearly about this: No one intercedes for the person being executed because grim soldiers armed with halberds and arbalests – Tanguts or Hunni sthnogenesis the borderlands – are lined up on both sides of the executioner’s block.
And so that is grounds for scientific dispute. There are no signs for defining an ethnos. After his victory, when the Sogdian men were slaughtered, and the children were sold into slavery, but the beautiful women and flourishing gardens were shared out among the victors, a Persian-speaking population developed in Sogdiana and Bukhara, that resembled the Khorassians.
Finally, the Tabghatchi, who arrived in China from the banks of the Kerulen, were victorious. Ethnic patterns are observable in space ethnography and in time ethnogenesis and the palaeogeography of the anthropogenic landscape.
Random passionary individuals quickly came together to form etnhogenesis clusters, which coalesced into ever-larger agglomerations, into ethnogeness the passionarii brought their protoethnic cohorts. During the Upper Paleolithic, when sub-arctic conditions prevailed in Europe, with a very arid climate, the valley of the Rhone was settled by the Grimaldi Negroid race, while the tropical forests of Africa were inhabited by the Khoisan race, which combined Mongoloid and Negroid features.
This state, it would seem, was poor and thinly populated, but in fact it maintained biosphfre army of horsemen, had a university, an academy, schools, a legal procedure, and even a trade deficit, because it imported more than it exported.
But man differs from other animals in that he makes tools, creating a qualitatively different layer, the technosphere. The Ethnic Community and Its Enemies: Even linguistic closeness to the Ottomans played no role for the Tatars. The Gumilev Mystique Author s: In other words, in order to be considered a Chinese wthnogenesis China, a person had to adopt the fundamentals of Chinese morality, education, and rules of behaviour.
Biocoenology has shown that man enters the biocoenosis of the terrain as an upper final link, because he is a major predator and, as such, is dependent on the evolution of nature, which by no means rules out the existence of an additional element, i.
Nikolai rated it did not like it Jul 08, Unnecessary and too fine information, while not altering the picture as a whole, creates what they call ‘noise’ or ‘interference’ in cybernetics and the study of systems. There is obviously a certain pattern here that needs to be brought out and described.
This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. In order to affect the forming or the break-up of an ethnos, social development operates through history, both political and cultural. Later, however, I plucked up courage.
Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth by Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev
Jaspers’ conception is the most substantiated attempt to understand history as a boon bestowed bisphere primitive savages by these five peoples that made the ‘breakthrough’ or ‘leap’, and were born anew as it were. To troubleshoot, please check our FAQsand if you can’t find the answer there, please contact us. But the more eastern lands, the oases of the Nan Shan foothills, were taken from the Uighurs by the Tanguts.
Hence it follows that the coincidence of the data obtained with the truth was a matter of chance, which suggested that the method was defective. Only the ehtnogenesis of a certain number of indisputable facts will be positive, and these, being derived layer by layer from the source, can be reduced to a chronological table or plotted on a historical map.
Yet all these, by no means dissimilar phenomena are named identically and, worse, are equated on that basis with one another.
The works of the founders of Marxism contain the program of a systematic approach to understanding historical process, but it biophere not yet been applied to questions of ethnogenesis. Narrow specialization is only ethnogemesis as a means of accumulating knowledge. There is nothing surprising in that.
Polybius’s conception is now regarded as an elegant rarity, ibn Khaidun’s fourteenth century as a curiosity. This page was last edited on 8 Novemberat We have no grounds for asserting that an ethnos occurred as a phenomenon in the Lower Paleolithic. When we generalize the material in a single complex historical geographyamenable to observation and study, we have to examine it in two aspects – the social and the natural.
Jaspers compared how the period of progressive development was completed: In the first stages of this process the speakers can be understood from the context, intonation, and situation in which the dispute is conducted, but in the last phases this unsatisfactory degree of understanding disappears. They evoked imitations and repetitions, which increased the total number of works on this question.
Ethnogenesis, Passionarnost′, and the Biosphere
People are united in the course of production, and the result of this uniting Is social relations, which are formed in one of the five known formations primitive communal, slaveowning, feudal, capitalist, and communist. Balloons rise, but a stone dropped from a cliff falls in space. This custom, or more correctly element of the ethnic stereotype of behaviour, proved more stable than language, religion, political system, tne own name. This last phrase he adapted from the traditional term ” Tatar Yoke ” for the Mongol domination of medieval Russia, a term Gumilyov rejected for he did not regard the Mongol conquest as a necessarily negative event.